Infections in Urology are commonly known as UTIs. They can involve any organ of the urinary tract like kidneys (nephritis and pyelonephritis), bladder (cystitis), prostate (prostatitis), epididymis (epididymitis), Testis (orchitis) and urethra (urethritis). Other less common infections may involve the skin and the connective tissue under the genital skin (cellulitis and gangrenes).


If you have painful urination and urethral discharge a few days after casual and unprotected sex, you are likely to have urethritis.

If you are a female and you suddenly have symptoms like painful and frequent urination you may have cystitis. This also called urinary tract infection (UTI), affects women almost exclusively. Actually, almost half of all of them will experience at least one episode of cystitis during their lifetime.



The epididymis is a system of tubules around the testicular poles draining and carrying the sperms through the vas deferens into the prostate (seminal vesicles) where are stored. Epididymitis is, in general, an acute infection of the epididymis. The bacteria (infection) inversely travels the sperm path (vas deferens), which connects the prostate to...



Painful, frequent, and urgent urination (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms or LUTS) with malaise or fever, distressing but poorly localized pain, are typical symptoms of acute prostatitis. Chronic prostatitis, on the other hand, means that the symptoms are less evident and LUTS are accompanied by pain that can occur at various locations including the...



Pyelonephritis is an acute infection of the kidney. Fever (> 38°C), chills, flank or lumbar pain, nausea, vomiting, with or without cystitis, are the typical symptoms.

Recurrent UTI or recurrent cystitis, is a matter of women, whether they are young or adult in pre-menopause, or elderly postmenopausal. Also in pregnancy, there is a significant risk of recurrent acute cystitis.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur commonly during pregnancy. We treat UTIs more aggressively in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. Urine samples should be sent for culture and empiric treatment is given while awaiting results. Only some antibiotics can be used during pregnancy to not to harm the fetus.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common during pregnancy. Acute cystitis, pyelonephritis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (positive urine culture in an asymptomatic woman). Approximately 1-4 % of pregnant women experience acute cystitis and the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy ranges from 2-10%.

Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of pre-term delivery and low birth weight. In addition, if untreated, 20-40% of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria may develop pyelonephritis later in pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria is therefore indicated in pregnant women to...

Cystitis is usually caused by bacterial colonization of the vagina and the area around the external meatus. In 95% of cases, bacteria come from the area around the anus, grow inside the vagina, enter the bladder through the external meatus and urethra, keep growing and cause cystitis.