Bladder Cancer linked to early menopause in smokers


Among women who ever smoked, menopause onset at age 45 or younger is associated with a 66% higher risk of bladder cancer compared with onset at age 50 or older.

Early onset of menopause is associated with a higher risk of bladder cancer among women with a history of smoking.

In this study, investigators found that, among women who had ever smoked, menopause onset at age 45 years or younger was associated with a significant 66% increased risk of bladder cancer compared with menopause onset at age 50 years or older, after adjusting for multiple variables. The investigators found no link between the age of menopause onset and bladder cancer among women who never smoked.

Smoking remains the most important risk factor for bladder cancer, Data also revealed that it is unlikely that female factors such as age when periods begin, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive use or the use of hormone replacement therapy are associated with bladder cancer risk. Smoking is associated with earlier age at menopause thereby further increasing the risk of developing bladder cancer.


Abufaraj M, Shariat SF, Moschini M, et al. The impact of hormones and reproductive factors on the risk of bladder cancer in women: Results from the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II. Presented at the European Association of Urology 2019 congress in Barcelona, Spain, held March 15-19. Abstract 175.