Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) are very common and if you are sexually active with multiple partners, you are at high risk. Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) is a condition in whom you got the bacteria or the virus but you do not have symptoms. It means that people at risk may be infected and contagious without having symptoms. Moreover, early diagnosis limits the complications when STI becomes a disease with symptoms (STD). That is why it is important to be tested. If we leave it untreated, STDs can lead to severe long-term complications and even death.
There are some common strong recommendations according to risk factors and STD issued by various scientific and government bodies.
CHLAMYDIA AND GONORRHEA
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are the leading causes of STD-related urethritis. The infection may be silent or little symptomatic or may give painful urination (dysuria) as a symptom. While testing is important if you have symptoms of urethritis, it is equally important to do it periodically (annually) if you are no symptomatic but at high risk for STD.
Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening is done either through a urine test or through a swab inside the penis in men or from the cervix in women.
HIV is the virus causing Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It can be tested in a blood sample. HIV tests should be done at least once in all categories. However, yearly testing is advised in people with a high risk of infection (use of intravenous drugs, forced and undesired sexual activity, multiple sexual partners).
Syphilis is a disease caused by Treponema Pallidum. You should be tested when you have symptoms of a syphilis infection; when you are at risk of being exposed to syphilis and other STDs, or have a sexual partner diagnosed with syphilis.
HEPATITIS B AND C
Hepatitis B and C screening is recommended for people born between 1945 and 1965. The incidence of hepatitis C is higher in this age group, and the disease often has no symptoms until it's advanced.
Genital herpes is a viral infection that can be transmitted even when there are no symptoms. No good screening test does exist for no symptomatic infection. A blood test may help detect a past herpes infection, but results aren't always conclusive.
No good screening test exists for herpes, a viral infection that can be transmitted even when a person doesn't have symptoms. Your doctor may take a tissue scraping or culture of blisters or early ulcers, if you have them, for examination in a laboratory.
There's no routinely used HPV screening test for men, in whom the infection is diagnosed by visual inspection or biopsy of genital warts. In women, HPV testing involves:
At-home STI testing
In-home STI testing, (HIV, chlamydia, and gonorrhea) the sample
collection is done by the patient and sent to the lab for analysis. There is clear instruction in the sample kit.
However, due to not adequate sampling, home STI testing may have a higher rate
of false-positive results. In case of positive results, a confirmation test in
a referral center should be done.