Stone Composition Linked to Race and Ethnicity


Race and ethnicity may affect the kidney stone composition

Among kidney stone formers, stones containing more than 50% calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) are significantly more common among Middle Eastern patients than among whites, blacks, and Hispanics, whereas stones containing more than 50% hydroxyapatite (HA), with or without calcium oxalate, are significantly less common in Middle Eastern patients than in whites, blacks, and Hispanics

Results showed that 85.7% of Middle Eastern patients had predominantly COM stones compared with 53.2%, 52.3%, 45.3%, 48.3%, and 70.8% of whites, blacks, Hispanics, East Asians, and South Asians, respectively. Predominantly HA stones occurred in 17.9%, 16.8%, 20.6%, 6.9%, and 4.2% of whites, blacks, Hispanics, East Asians, and South Asians, respectively, but not in any of the Middle Eastern patients.

Kidney stone composition is determined by a multi-factorial process with dietary, metabolic and/or genetic influences; further investigation into specific mechanisms is warranted.


Friedlander J, Patel R, Rhee K, et al. Kidney stone composition varies according to the racial and ethnic background; multi-institutional analysis of stone formers in the northeastern United States. Data presented in poster format at the American Urological Association 2018 annual meeting, San Francisco, May 18-21. Abstract MP13-12.